Testosterone is important because it increases muscle protein synthesis and this is essentially what bodybuilders desire most. Other important hormones are growth hormone and insulin. Growth hormone is produced in the hypothalamus, which is situated above the pituitary gland, and is responsible for keeping the body in a youthful state by revitalizing the immune system, enhancing sexual function and most importantly for bodybuilders, stimulating muscle tissue repair. Insulin assists amino acid and glucose transport into muscle cells.
Acne is often present. Acne conglobata is a particularly severe form of acne that can develop during steroid abuse or even after the drug has been discontinued. Infections are a common side effect of steroid abuse because of needle sharing and unsanitary techniques used when injecting the drugs into the skin. These are similar risks to IV drug abusers with increased potential to acquire blood-borne infections such as hepatitis and HIV/AIDS . Skin abscesses may occur at injection sites and may spread to other organs of the body. Endocarditis or an infection of the heart valves is not uncommon.