In order to ensure an appropriate immune response , new vaccines and their development necessitate production of new generation adjuvants ( Nicholls et al ., 2010 ); ., use of cytokines viz., mucosal vaccine adjuvants such as IL-7 and IL-12 ( Stevceva et al ., 2006 ). Cytokines and chemokines viz., monocyte chemotactic proteins (MCPs), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and macrophage inflammatory proteins (MIPs) have been incorporated into vaccines most recently. This can be done in lieu of their (cytokines) potential to enhance recruitment of dendritic cells and monocytes from blood into the interstitial sites of vaccine delivery ( Klavinskis et al ., 2010 ). Killer cells, induced by cytokines like IL-2 and 15, can be used as vaccine against cancer ( Lee and Margolin, 2011 ; Thanendrarajan et al ., 2011 ). The important cytokines with their source, function along with their therapeutic application are listed in Table 4 .
Perhaps more importantly, levamisole has been extremely productive in forward genetic screens. In the earliest studies tetramisole was used ( Brenner, 1974 ) and later this was replaced by the more active isomer, levamisole ( Lewis et al., 1980 ). These screens have provided a resource of mutants that have been used over the last two decades to assign function to genes expressed at the neuromuscular junction. Some of these are nACh receptor subunits, but others interestingly are not and serve to either regulate nicotinic receptors or muscle function (see Table 2 ).
In 2007, Michael Munro, a Scottish neonatologist at Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, was cleared of malpractice by the GMC Fitness to Practice panel after giving 23 times the standard dose of pancuronium to two dying neonates . In the final minutes of life, each baby was suffering from agonal gasping and violent body spasms, which was highly distressing for the parents to witness. Munro administered pancuronium to the babies after advising the parents that this would ease their suffering and could also hasten death.   It is on record that neither of the children's parents was unhappy with Dr Munro's treatment of their babies.