Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs the importance of drug delivery and therapeutic outcome

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of Diclofenac Sodium Topical Solution, % w/w in pregnant women. Data from observational studies regarding potential embryofetal risks of NSAID use in women in the first or second trimesters of pregnancy are inconclusive. In the general . population, all clinically recognized pregnancies, regardless of drug exposure, have a background rate of 2-4% for major malformations, and 15-20% for pregnancy loss. Published reproductive and developmental studies of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, the solvent used in Diclofenac Sodium Topical Solution, % w/w) are equivocal as to potential teratogenicity. In animal reproduction studies, no evidence of teratogenicity was observed in mice, rats, or rabbits given diclofenac daily during the period of organogenesis at doses up to approximately , , and times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of Diclofenac Sodium Topical Solution, % w/w, despite the presence of maternal and fetal toxicity at these doses [see Data]. Based on animal data, prostaglandins have been shown to have an important role in endometrial vascular permeability, blastocyst implantation, and decidualization. In animal studies, administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors such as diclofenac, resulted in increased pre- and post-implantation loss.

COX-2 inhibitors and gastroduodenal toxicity: Major clinical trials
COX-2 selective inhibitors: Adverse cardiovascular effects
Nonselective NSAIDs: Adverse cardiovascular effects
Nonselective NSAIDs: Overview of adverse effects
NSAIDs (including aspirin): Pathogenesis of gastroduodenal toxicity
NSAIDs (including aspirin): Primary prevention of gastroduodenal toxicity
NSAIDs (including aspirin): Role in prevention of colorectal cancer
NSAIDs (including aspirin): Secondary prevention of gastroduodenal toxicity
NSAIDs (including aspirin): Treatment of gastroduodenal toxicity
NSAIDs and acetaminophen: Effects on blood pressure and hypertension
NSAIDs: Acute kidney injury (acute renal failure)
NSAIDs: Adverse effects on the distal small bowel and colon
NSAIDs: Electrolyte complications
NSAIDs: Pharmacology and mechanism of action
NSAIDs: Therapeutic use and variability of response in adults
Overview of selective COX-2 inhibitors

Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs the importance of drug delivery and therapeutic outcome

topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs the importance of drug delivery and therapeutic outcome

Media:

topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs the importance of drug delivery and therapeutic outcometopical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs the importance of drug delivery and therapeutic outcometopical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs the importance of drug delivery and therapeutic outcometopical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs the importance of drug delivery and therapeutic outcometopical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs the importance of drug delivery and therapeutic outcome